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Technology is improving each and every day, but these advancements have left many of us tightly trapped in the luxuries and comforts, imposing many side effects on our overall health. One such modern advancement in technology that’s affecting our health is the use of headphones. Today, many people use headphones without knowing the kind of negative health issues the devices can cause.
Well, although headphones are an ergonomic, convenient and quite useful hands free accessories, there are various health risks that are associated with their use. Experts believe that prolonged use of headphones can cause great damage to the ears. In addition, headphones cause ear infections, which contributes to hearing loss. Well, some of the risks that are associated with headphones have more to do with their use and maintenance, than with the headphones mechanics.
Ear infections are much more likely to occur amongst the headphone users who wear the devices for extended periods of time, and also amongst those who don’t take good care of their headphones. For example, headphone ear cushions need to be replaced every 2-3 months, and should be treated regularly with the right cleaning agent so as to avoid accumulation of germs and bacteria. Prolonged headphone use also causes aural hygiene issues, hearing loss along with ear canal infections. Recent scientific studies have revealed that wearing headphones for extended periods of time usually increase the humidity and the temperatures inside the ear canals, thereby increasing one’s susceptibility to ear infections. This shows that headphones cause ear infections.
Sharing of headphones is another way headphones cause ear infections. It is quite common for people to share their headphones with others . Sharing headphones with others is not a good idea since the bacteria from other people’s ears will travel to your very own ears and this will cause ear infections. Therefore, the next time you think of sharing your headphones, think again. Do not share your headphones with anyone, not even your friends or family.
Listening to music together is another way headphones cause ear infections. As romantic as it may seem, there are dire repercussions to sharing headphones. In the process of enjoying music together, you will end up transferring somebody elseâs bacteria to your ears; this can lead to ear infections. Make sure you sanitize your headphones by thoroughly cleaning them with a clean tissue paper before plugging them in.
Apart from the germs and bacteria you get from borrowing or/and sharing headphones, you can also get germs and bacteria from not changing your very own headphone sponges. It’s recommended you change the rubber or sponge cover of your headphones every 2-3 months mainly because they tend to get covered with germs and bacteria over time.
Some other ways you can avoid ear infections caused by headphones is by always keeping your headphones clean, regularly replacing the old headphones and ear pads, avoiding sharing headphones or using the public headphones, and not sharing earbuds. Also, if your headphones have a sponge or a rubber cover, make sure you change them every 2 months. Finally, remember to give your ears some rest once every 15 minutes, and do not play the music way too loud, for this might contribute to hearing loss.
If youâre planning a family outing where youâll camp for several days, or if youâre headed for an amusement packed backpacking expedition with friends, you might want to know where to buy walkie talkieÂ communication systems. These gadgets are very small in size, and you can go with them wherever you want to as most of them weigh less than half a pound and you can hardly feel burdened by them as you hike.
Additionally, they come in very handy in regions where cell phones cannot dare venture. Some top quality walkie talkies can provide a huge array of features such as weather alerts as well as SOS signals. 2 way radio onlineÂ has all kinds of two-way radios including the newest types that come with better-quality frequency options as well as radio ranges.
Types of two-way radios
Bearing in mind that thereâs a myriad of two-way radio systems available in the market, arguably the most important question to ask yourself if you want to buy a walkie talkie is: whatâs the best choice? However, this isnât a very hard decision once you understand where and how youâll use it. Firstly, youâll need to pick either of the two main kinds of two-way radios, which are family or consumer walkie talkies and professional business walkie talkies.
Within both kinds, you would also want to decide whether a radio system with licensed or unlicensed band is most suitable for you. On the one hand, licensed radios come with powerful 5W frequency transmissions and a wider coverage range. However, youâll have to be contented with a frequency fee. On the other hand, unlicensed band walkie talkies attract no fees, but theyâre comparatively low in power plus a limited range thatâs only suitable for casual users.
You would also want to decide between an analogue and a digital walkie talkie. Some businesses search for radio systems that can operate suitably in risky highly explosive environments. Radios with ATEX certification are highly recommended in such areas. You can find all these kinds of walkie talkies and more at 2wayradionline
VHF or UHF walkie talkies?
An important consideration when looking to buy walkie talkie is keeping in mind that Ultra High Frequency (UHF) radios will be your best purchase in most cases. Essentially, a UHF radio can never send or receive communication to a Very High Frequency (VHF) radio. As such, if you have some walkie talkies and youâre only looking to add some more units to be used with what you already have, go for the same band.
VHF radios can provide more coverage with less power, but they only function well when thereâs little interference between the sender and the receiver. UHF walkie talkies function best with most users since they have shorter waves and can penetrate or get around areas of interference such as hilly areas, thickly wooded areas, in buildings as well as in urban outdoor settings. If youâll use your radios strictly indoors or if itâs a combination of indoors and outdoors, then UHF is the best choice. You can choose from some of the best VHF and UHF two-way radios at 2 way radio online
We all know how important radio communications are and at a time before the internet and even digital communications, governments relied on RF communications that were susceptible to the suns solar storms, if you add that to the cold war nuclear tensions then we could all be living in holes now.
Cold War history isÂ rife with close callsÂ that nearly led to nuclear holocaust.
In September 1983, for example, sunlight reflecting off a patch of clouds fooled a Soviet missile-warning system into detecting the launch of five US intercontinental ballistic missiles that never were. A wary colonel in a bunker ignored the alarm onÂ a 50/50 hunch.
Two months later, US forces staged “Able Archer 83” â a massive nuclear-strike drill on the doorstep of the USSR. Soviet commanders panicked at the show of force and nearly bathed America in thermonuclear energy. Once again, an act of human doubtÂ saved the planet.
Now scientists have one more hair-raising event to add to the books:Â The “Great Storm” of May 1967.
“The storm made its initial mark with a colossal solar radio burst causing radio interference … and near-simultaneous disruptions of dayside radio communication,” a group of atmospheric scientists and military weather service personnel wrote in a new study, published August 9 in the journalSpace Weather.
Hours later, high frequency communications dropped out nearÂ US military installations in and near the ArcticÂ â one of the closest places to station nuclear weapons and launch them at a Cold War-era Soviet Union.
“Such an intense, never-before-observed solar radio burst was interpreted as jamming,” the study authors wrote. “Cold War military commanders viewed full scale jamming of surveillance sensors as a potential act of war.”
A ‘Great Storm’
Earth’s magnetic field protects life on the planet by corralling the sun’s high-energy particles toward the planet’s polar regions.
If the sun happens to launch a cloud of solar particles directly toward Earth during a violent outburst, called a coronal mass ejection, it can triggerÂ powerful geomagnetic storms.
This not only leads to beautiful auroras, but can also scramble wireless communications and disrupt radar systems.
While The Washington Post wrote up a story about the storm as “City Gets Rare Look at Northern Lights,” top US military commanders sounded the alarms in secret.
The Air Weather Service (AWS) â a relatively new branch of the Air Force â had warned military leadership about the possibility of a solar storm, but US commanders believed the Soviet forces were jammingÂ NORADÂ systems designed to detect threatening planes and missiles.
As the Strategic Air Command warmed up the engines of bombers and taxied toward the runway, the decision to go airborne may have been kicked all the way up to the “highest levels of government,” possibly involving President Lyndon B. Johnson.
“Just in time, military space weather forecasters conveyed information about the solar storm’s potential to disrupt radar and radio communications,” according to aÂ press release from the American Geophysical Union. “The planes remained on the ground and the U.S. avoided a potential nuclear weapon exchange with the Soviet Union.”
“Had it not been for the fact that we had invested very early on in solar and geomagnetic storm observations and forecasting, the impact [of the storm] likely would have been much greater,” study leader and UCAR atmospheric scientist Delores Knipp said in the release.
After the near miss, the researchers say the military learned to listen to its space weather forecasters, improve its abilities to see another looming “Great Storm,” and avert the first and perhaps final global nuclear exchange.
Find the original source here
Every time a singer gets on stage, he or she wants to put on his/her best performance ever. This is why he/she will try to avoid any distraction that might otherwise affect his or her performance in a negative way. They will ensure that their concentration is really high and that they can hear themselves sing during that moment. One of the distractions that is usually in almost every concert is noise. The noise can be coming from the speakers, the echoes and even form the audience itself.
The music and the song that is normally heard when a singer is performing is referred to as house mix while the song that the singer hears from the speakers is referred to as monitor mix. Usually, a singer stands at the back of the main speakers that are normally placed in front of the audience. Most of the time especially on a big stage, the song that reaches the audience is reflected back to the stage (but not immediately). Such background music will prevent the singer from hearing his or her voice.
Stage monitors are small speakers that are directly aimed at the singer for him or her to hear himself or herself sing. Stage monitors were previously used in concerts and they are still being used on some small venues where cover bands do gigs e.g. in some private parties, bars etc. In the current concert venues, stage monitors do not work very well. This is because singers and musicians move a lot on stage when they are performing. Although the stage monitors enable the singer to hear the music on the stage, they are not as clear as personal monitors (referred to as earpieces, very different to Radio Earpieces).
Earpieces give the singer a detailed information regarding his or her performance. They make him/her hear both the song and the orchestra. They enable the singer to constantly hear his/her song regardless of his or her physical movement on the stage. This is unlike the stage monitors that usually provide the bandâs and the singerâs voice based on their distance from the speaker. With stage monitors, the sounds usually vary especially if the singer is moving all over the stage.
When a singer has the earpieces on, he gets to choose what he wants to hear. For instance if he wants to hear himself sing or even hear the lyrics, he can. The earpieces help in drowning out the background sounds like the noises made by the crowd or even those from the band. In fact on average, the earpieces can help the singer reduce the background noise by up to 30 decibels. This can extremely help the singer during the performance.
Usually, the earpieces are tailor- made to perfectly fit the singer. They also come in different styles and colors and therefore the singer can pick the one that suits his/her outfit on the stage.
The most important benefit of having the earpieces on is that, they help the singer in eliminating or reducing the echoes. In an auditorium specifically built for concerts, sounds usually radiate through the entire building when the singer is performing. The audience really enjoy the music that echoes back to the stage however, the singer can easily get confused with such echoes. Note that, by the time the echo reaches the stage, it will be one or two seconds off from what the singer is singing at that moment.
Earpieces also help in blocking the sounds that are coming from the band. The instruments are extremely loud especially those that use electric amplifiers. This noise can make it really hard for the singer to hear himself or herself sing.
The earpieces give the singer the sound feedback and therefore he/she is able to hear everything that is in the song. This makes it easier for him/her to keep on with his or her performance.
Sometimes, you may notice that some garage bands who work in small areas are not using earpieces. The members of such bands usually monitor one another while performing to ensure that they keep up and stay in tune during the performance. However in large crowds of say a 100000 people (i.e. in huge stadiums), one will definitely need earpieces otherwise he/she may not hear anything and may even end up with off key sounds.
In the world today, walkie-talkies are very important tools. From security services, construction sites, camping sites to use during emergency rescue missions, they are a vital part of the communication industry. In the past, walkie-talkie users walked around talking and listening directly from the big phonesâ but with the advancement of technology, walkie-talkie accessories have made it possible to seamlessly communicate using earpieces and headphones connected to the walkie-talkie while it remains strapped to the belt. At EarpieceOnline.co.uk we have a wide range of top quality walkie-talkie and radio accessories to help ease communication with workmates.
Using a radio earpiece for a walkie-talkie is very convenient and it simplifies the communication by a mile. Radio earpieces and headsets help in remaining discrete and offer clearer communications. This feature is important especially for police and security agents looking to conduct investigations and surveillance unnoticed. The push to talk features make it easy to walk around while communicating. Radio Â earpieces help in noise cancellation enabling loud and clear communication. When looking to buy a good radio earpiece, other than considering your budget, itâs important to consider the comfort and ease of use of the earpiece. EarpieceOnline.co.uk, they have the best Radio Earpieces and Connectors together with many other Radio accessories. They have high quality Radio Earpiece Styles that guarantee to suit your working needs. Below are some of the top Earpiece Accessories, Connectors and Earpiece styles available in the Online store;
EarpieceOnline.co.uk, have the best earpieces both wireless and wired. These earpieces can be used together with all the leading 2 way Radio Brands like Motorola, Kenwood, Entel, Hytera and Icom. Their earpieces are very small, light and comfortable to wear. The small invisible earpieces will help provide clear and covert conversations. Your information is secure with these small masterpieces and no one will even realise that you are on radio communication.
They also have different styles of earpieces available in store. With D shaped earpieces, C shaped earpieces, acoustic tube (2 wire and 3wire) and bone conductors. It is upon the customer to make the choice for the most appropriate earpiece suited for his/her needs. Here are some of the available earpiece types in the store; High quality 3 wire covert earpieces, earpieces adaptors, in ear moulds and mushroom replacements for acoustic tube earpieces. The 3 wire covert earpiece kits available in our store include; The Covert Motorola Block connector earpiece, Covert Motorola 2 Pin connector earpieces, The Covert Kenwood 2 Pin connector earpiece and Icom Multipin connector earpiece. These earpieces can be used with most of the leading Radio brands in the market.
These acoustic tube earpieces are made from very durable materials with Kevlar cable reinforcement. The connecting wires to these connectors are long enough giving you freedom to walk around comfortably. They further have Noise reducing microphones, push to talk buttons and are all RoHS compliant. The features might slightly vary depending on the brand of earpiece you prefer.
We also have wireless kits to further make your communications discrete and easier. These kits are very small, light and easy to use. The inductive pack of the kit is attached to the collar of a shirt or inside a jacket and it then transmits audio signals to the in-ear wireless earpiece. A small push to talk button is concealed in the userâs wrist where the user will be talking to. The available wireless kits in EarpieceOnline.co.uk include; Inductive wireless flat pack with its in-ear wireless earpiece and the Neck Loop Inductor Earpiece with an In âEar wireless receiver. All these earpieces come with well-designed mushroom replacements.
Different radios have different connection ports. At EarpieceOnline.co.uk , they have a range of earpiece radio connectors to connect earpieces/headsets to all the leading radio brands like Motorola, Kenwood and Icom. Whereas other connectors are tailored to specific brands, some are universal and will be used to connect more than one 2 way radios. Some of the available connectors at EarpieceOnlineinclude; interchangeable universal connectors- this connectors allow you to interchange between different radios like the Motorola GP340, GP344, GP360, DP3400, DP2400, all Icom, Hytera and Kenwood radios. We also have replacement connectors that are used to replace specific connectors. They include; DP2400 replacement connectors, Entel Multi-pin Connectors, GP340 Connectors and many other individual brands. Be sure to check with us for your desired connectors.
Why shop with us
EarpieceOnline.co.uk have a large team of experienced professionals to help you with choosing and buying 2 way radios and accessories. We sell high quality products which meet the required standards to satisfy our customers. Our prices are very affordable considering the durable and the quality of the products that we offer. Our customers enjoy very fast responses to queries and we deliver the purchased items quickly. Visit our online store at EarpieceOnline.co.uktoday and get high quality products to suit your business. If you are looking for the best 2 way radios, earpieces, connectors, adaptors and many other communication accessories then EarpieceOnline is your perfect spot to shop.
Have you ever stopped to think where headsets really came from? Well, they first headset was used in the 20th century; however, the technology has significantly improved over the decades. Shockingly it did not occur to anyone that headsets could be used to listening music on devices. Read more about the invention of radio headset in this article.
Everyone Uses Headsets
Headsets are an important accessory and it is very clear that they have indeed managed to save an argument over the years. Headsets enable you to listen to audio/music without having to get in the way of anyone else. In this time and age, we use all types of headsets from tiny earplugs with a wireless Bluetooth technology for listening to music in the streets, to big leather-padded cans to listen to music at home. Gaming headsets are increasingly becoming popular as many of them today come outfitted with a microphone, hence allowing the users to speak with other relatives, gamers and friends.
Headsets can give the user a great sound quality, there isnât any sort of interruption between the ear and the sound, external sound is blocked out and there is absolutely nowhere for it to dissipate, more so if you invest in a pair of high quality headsets which are plentifully available nowadays. As a matter of fact, if you take a walk back to the early 20th century right before amplifiers had been invented; sensitive headsets were the only means that was could be used to listen to music/audio.
What Year Was The First Radio Headset Invented?
Accurately speaking, the very first headset dates back to the telephone early adoption and by 1920 radio headsets were being commercially manufactured . These were mainly used by professionals and not by the public. There exists an argument over who was first person behind the idea to dwindle down loudspeakers and move on to attach them on our heads but the earliest living example dates back to around 1911. This was far from the headsets we use presently with no padding for comfort and a very low sound quality. They were used by telephone exchanges and radio operators.
Who Invented The Radio Headset?
Headsets were the only way to listen to audio files before the development of amplifiers. Headsets were invented in 1910 by Nathaniel Baldwin, an American born to a Canadian father and an American mother. Baldwin developed the first, truly successful set in 1910 by hand in his kitchen and later sold them to US Navy.
Baldwinâs headsets made use of moving iron drivers that came with either balanced or single ended armatures. The requirement for high-sensitivity meant damping could not be used, and hence they had a crude sound quality. These early models did not have padding, and oftentimes ended up producing excessive clamping force on the heads of persons wearing them.
In 1944, John C. Koss a jazz musician and an audiophile from Milwaukee, US, designed the first stereo headset. Previously, headsets were used only by radio and telephone operators, as well as persons in related industries. The 3.5-mm phone connector and radio headset, which is commonly used in portable applications today, has been in use since the Sony EFM117J radio that was released in 1965.
All-American nutter Donald Trump is back in the news again, this time for making fun of the disabled.
The would-be American President jerked his arms around and acted confused in order to mock disabled journalist Serge Kovaleski, who suffers from arthrogryposis, a congenital joint condition that severely affects his limbs, particularly in his right arm and hand.
One might argue that Trump was just doing an impersonation of an idiot (something he does very well) as a way of slighting Kovaleskiâs reporting. From there, one could surmise that the whole thing has been blown out of proportion by an overly sensitive media, until one realizes that Mr. Kovaleski reported on Trump between 1987 and 1993 and that the pair have actually met face to face on numerous occasions.
So, why this latest outburst? Trump was once again using a mis-read article to back up a completely fabricated claim. In this reporterâs opinion, he really should try reading some of these articles ALL THE WAY THROUGH, RIGHT TO THE END, especially if he plans to continue quoting them in public.
Anyway, hereâs the story. In 2001, during the aftermath of the September 11th attacks on the World Trade Centre, then-Washington Post journalist Serge Kovaleski reported that Jersey City Police had “detained and questioned a number of people who were allegedly seen celebrating the attacks and holding tailgate-style parties on rooftops while they watched the devastation on the other side of the river”.
Apparently Trump was the only spectator to the âthousandsâ of Arab-Americans that he claims to have seen celebrating as the twin towers fell. There are no reports anywhere in the media that this rally (or anything even remotely matching Trumpâs vivid descriptions) actually happened. Even the mayor of Jersey City has come forward to refute Trumpâs bizarre claims, calling them âplain wrongâ. Amazingly, Trump himself appears to have waited for 14 years before going public with this shocking sight that only he bore witness to.
BZZZD! Whoops, there goes my bullsh!t detector again!
Mr. Kovaleskiâs current employers, The New York Times, have called his actions âoutrageousâ and, in retaliation, Mr. Trump has taken the fight to Twitter, calling the publication âdumbâ and criticising their âpoorâ management, amongst other things.
Yeah, thatâll show em! How dare they stand behind a disabled employee who has been publicly victimised!
This new outburst was just the latest in a long line of such statements from what appears to be a very public mid-life crisis which has been offensive, painful, embarrassing and laugh-out-loud funny to watch, usually at the same time.
And you thought George Bush was a douchebag!
Itâs a brave move by the olympic organisers, the London Olympic communications was run by Riedel and they did an excellent job, they have experience in this field, but the Brazilians are obviously set on using Teltronic and we all hope that they do just as good as a job.
Teltronic, part of the Sepura Group, has been chosen by the public security secretary of RÃo de Janeiro State in Brazil to supply communications for the Summer Olympics and Paralympics, informally known as Rio 2016.
The â¬10m contract will cover four venues (Barra da Tijuca, Copacabana, Deodoro and MaracanÃ£), two airports (Rio de Janeiro/GaleÃ£o – AntÃ´nio Carlos Jobim International and Santos Dumont) and several key transport routes in the Olympic area.
The agreement with Teltronic will see an extension to the traffic capabilities of the existing Teltronic network currently used by the Rio police, as well as the installation of further Nebula base stations to provide additional coverage for the state police and emergency services, and the Olympics organisation workforce.
The existing network was originally provided by Teltronic for the Pan American Games in 2007 and, after some upgrades, is now supporting over 100 dispatch operators and more than 18,000 radios. This new upgrade for the Olympics will feature two extra TETRA carriers for each site, to update the capacity of the existing network; base stations with up to 12 TETRA transceivers to support high traffic loads throughout the event; a CeCoCo Control Centre, to accommodate a further 50 dispatch operators; an additional 6,000 terminals featuring Teltronic’s Synchronous Data Manager application to pare down the GPS refresh time in AVL applications; and 24/7 maintenance and operational support during the Games.
“This win builds on our long-term relationship with the Brazilian authorities and public safety agencies,” said Paulo Ferrao, the Sepura Group’s sales director for Brazil.
“We have a strong background in events of this scale, having supported communications for the FIFA World Cup 2014 and the Pan-American Games, both huge events in the sporting calendar of Brazil and, indeed, the world. We are delighted that Rio de Janeiro’s public safety agencies have, once again, placed their trust in us.”
Superintendent of critical communications at the Security Secretariat of the State, Colonel Alexandre Corval, commented: “We are extremely happy to have chosen Teltronic.
“The company has been a trustworthy partner to our public safety agencies for over ten years. Once again, they have exceeded our expectations in terms of technical development, quality of the deployment and, above all, their dedication to customer service: throughout the project, they have paid close attention to our technical and operational requirements.
“We are confident that this extension to the existing Teltronic TETRA system will optimise our mission-critical communications, enhancing the security of both visitors and employees throughout Rio 2016.”
We will see a huge change in the way we access the the internet in the future when 5G is here, at speeds that only big businesses and high level internet companies see at the moment, we will have this to hand on our smart phones and tablets. When 5G is hundreds of times faster than any of the UK’s broadbands, households will be looking to the mobile phone companies to supply their home broadband.
A 5G future is no longer a distant one, but an upcoming reality. High quality videos of more than 10Mbps can be served simultaneously to 100 users even in a train running at up to 500km/h. People can experience data rates that are 100 times faster than currently available technologies.
The Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) of Korea will hold a “5G technology demonstration” on the 18th December, 2015. It will demonstrate future SNS (social network service) and several 5G core technologies such as “millimeter wave”, “Mobile Hot-spot Network”, “in-band full duplex” and so on.
5G is the next generation wireless technology that would provide even faster data rates, even lower delays, and even more devices connected than 4G. Accordingly, distinct and differentiated applications are expected in 5G.
ETRI’s “future SNS” is a kind of trial service model to apply 5G technologies that provides dynamic user-centric connection to neighboring people, things and spaces. It is characterized by instant content-sharing between users, communication with neighboring things, and Giga-bps(Gbps)-grade video applications in vehicles.
5G core technologies demonstrated by ETRI include the following:
— MHN (Mobile Hot-spot Network) is a mobile backhaul technology that provides high-speed Internet access of Gbps in vehicles at speeds of up to 500 km/h (e.g. KTX in Korea). Almost 100 passengers can watch videos of high quality simultaneously.
— ZING is a near-field communication technology that enables mass data to be transmitted with 3.5 Gbps data rate between neighboring devices within the radius of 10cm.
— Single-RF-Chain compact MIMO technology enables a single antenna to simulate the effect of multiple antenna. It can reduce antenna volume and cancel inter-antenna interference in a multi-antenna system.
— Millimeter wave (mmWave) beam switching technology provides fast switching of radio beams to mobile users, and therefore allows seamless Gbps-grade service in mobile environments.
— Mobile Edge Platform (MEP) is a mobile edge cloud server on vehicles that enables passengers to enjoy customized Gbps-grade content and connects them with neighbors, things and spaces. It provides user-centric services.
— In-band Full Duplex technology can transmit and receive signals simultaneously over the same frequency band. It can increase spectral efficiency by up to two times.
— Small cell SW technology is designed for AP(Access Point)-sized small cell base stations that can reduce communication dead zones and improve data rates per user in a hot-spot area.
“With this demonstration event, we are officially introducing our R&D results on 5G. We will continue to lead the development of 5G technologies. Also, we are trying to develop commercialization technologies needed by businesses, and to construct a 5G ecosystem.” said Dr. Hyun Kyu Chung, vice president of ETRI Communication & Internet Lab.
In January, 2016, ETRI will demonstrate Giga internet service and future SNS in a Seoul subway train installed with MHN and ZING kiosks. ETRI will also introduce hand-over technology on a millimeter wave mobile communication system and 5G radio access technology that satisfies 1 millisecond radio latency.
Established in 1976, ETRI is a non-profit Korean government-funded research organization that has been at the forefront of technological excellence for about 40 years. In the 1980s, ETRI developed TDX (Time Division Exchange) and 4M DRAM. In the 1990s, ETRI commercialized CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) for the first time in the world. In the 2000s, ETRI developed Terrestrial DMB, WiBro, and LTE-A, which became the foundation of mobile communications.
Recently, as a global ICT leader, ETRI has been advancing communication and convergence by developing Ship Area Network technology, Genie Talk (world class portable automatic interpretation; Korean-English/Japanese/Chinese), and automated valet parking technology. As of 2015, ETRI has about 2,000 employees where about 1,800 of them are researchers.